Three Alls Policy

The Three Alls Policy, which is also known as the Burn To Ash Strategy and Sanko Sakusen in Japanese, was a policy that was adopted in China as a response against the Hundred Regiments Offensive in December 1940. The three alls described in the policy are “kill all, burn all, loot all” which includes killing Chinese civilians, stealing resources and the like, and also raping innocent Chinese women or some Vietnam comfort women. The idea was first initiated by Major General Ryukichi Tanaka in 1940, but it was General Yasuji Okamura who implemented the policy in 1942. Okamura was stationed in north China when he decided to divide the 5 provinces of Shandong, Shensi, Hebei, Chachaer, and Shanhsi under 3 different categories such as “Pacified”, “Semi-Pacified”, and “Unpacified”. The Three Alls Policy was officially approved on December 3, 1941 by the Imperial General Headquarters.

Yasuji Okamura

The policy also aimed to put walls and digging trenches in order to further pacify the territories that they were able to seize control of, and to also kill enemies disguising as locals. The term Sanko Sakusen was first coined when former Fushun war criminals were released in 1957 and shared their experiences during the World War II. They wrote the book entitled ” The Three Alls: Japanese Confessions of War Crimes In China”, where the Imperial soldiers revealed and shared their experiences and crimes that they committed under Yasuji Okamura’s reign as General. The book’s production was halted prematurely when the publishers received death threats from Japanese militarists. In present day, the Three Alls Policy is still a very controversial topic. Nationalists groups completely deny Japan’s involvement in the implementation of the policy, since the name of the policy is in Chinese. The Three Alls Policy is confused with the Koumintang’s own scorch earth tactics, as it was also used in northern China and involved both Japanese forces’ and Chinese civilians. The tactic would involve destroying every house in order to possibly deny Japanese troops resources and shelter.

Chinese Comfort Women

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Pac-Man

Pac-Man was first released on May 22, 1980 in Japan by video gaming developer and company Namco. It is an arcade game which helped paved the way for a new genre of gaming when space shooter games and other sports themed games were dominating the video game industry in the 1980s. Pac-Man ended up as being one of the most iconic video games in pop culture history, and becoming one of the most successful and best selling video games of any kind of genre. Pac-Man generated about 2.5 billion dollars in income by the 1990s. The mechanics of the game revolve around pac-man moving around a maze while eating continuously dots or pellets which is known as pac-dots.

screenshot of the classic pac-man

 

The objective is to be able to eat all of the pac-dots in the maze, while staying alive by avoiding enemies in the process. If an enemy touches Pac-Man, Pac-Man dies and the user loses a life. If the user loses all of the lives, then the game ends immediately. Pac-Man, however gains the ability to eat his enemies by eating the bigger and flashing dots known as the power pellets, which are found at the 4 corners of the maze. There are 4 enemies of Pac-Man in the game, which are colored red, orange, blue, and pink. The enemies have their own distinct movement and behavior in the maze, with the red chasing Pac-Man all the time, the blue and the pink are always aiming to stay in front of Pac-Man’s mouth. The orange, meanwhile, tends to be more random among the 4, which according to some game analysis, tends to move towards the lower-left corner or follow Pac-Man relentlessly. Upon release of the game, the Pac-Man had a lukewarm reception from the Japanese people, while it became an instant hit in the United States. This is because of the popularity of space shooter games during that era.

 

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Resident Evil

Resident Evil is a third person horror and survival game that was launched in 1996 by Capcom. The game first released for the Sony Playstation console, and due to popular demand, it was also released for Sega Saturn and Microsoft Windows console. The concept was developed by Shinji Mikami, taking inspirations from the 1992 game Alone In The Dark. The game revolves around the two main protagonists of the game, Special Tactics and Rescue Service (most famously known for its abbreviation S.T.A.R.S) members Chris Redfield and Jill Valentine. The whole team of S.T.A.R.S is trapped in a mansion, where in zombies and other creatures lurk, attack, and ultimately infest humans and turn them into zombies. The mission or the task is to unveil the secrets inside the mansion, and also being able to get out of the mansion alive.

Resident Evil

 

The game involves a detective like dynamic, as documents and other items in the environment of the game help solve puzzles that further continue the narrative of the story. The game introduced the now iconic typewriting animation for saving the game data. The player also has an access to the character’s inventory in order to use and interchange between weapons and other items such as herbs and first aid kits to restore health. A chest box is also present in the game, which is found most of the time inside the saving area where users can store items that cannot be placed in the inventory due to insufficient space. The game became a hit in North America, and sold about 5 million units. It was the best-selling Playstation game in February 1997. The game itself became the start of the Resident Evil Franchise, which has become a smash hit to gamers and a household name to the public. As of 2013, the total sales of the game is listed as 11 million units. It also helped popularize and expand the horror and survival game genre.

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Yoshio Kodama

Yoshio Kodama was born on February 18, 1911 and was born in Nihonmatsu, Japan. His early life saw him staying in with his relatives in the Japanese part of Korea, in which he started and organized a nationalist group with the intent of killing and assassinating some Japanese politicians. He was eventually caught by the authorities and served time in prison for 3 and a half years. Kodama is a well known criminal figure in Japan and is an activist of the criminal underworld during the 1950’s up until the 1970s. He made a fortune by bringing in opiates to Japan and involving himself in a drug trade, all while doing errands for the government after he was contacted by them to help import resources for the Japanese war. He was able to do this thanks to the contacts that Kodama was able to establish during his time in Korea as a youth. This move allowed to make about 175 million US dollars, which made him one of the richest figures in Japan and Asia.

Yoshio Kodama

 

Immediately after the end of the World War II, Kodoma was convicted by the United States as a suspected Class A war criminal. He was imprisoned in Sugamo Prison. During his term in the prison, he met Ryoichi Sasakawa, who was also a war criminal, and the two formed a friendship. Kodama also penned two books during his stay in the prison, entitled “Sugamo Diary” and “I Was Defeated”. He was granted his freedom after reaching an agreement with the U.S. government, with Kodama providing help against communism in Asia. Kodama then used every resource and contact that he had in order to put an end to labor disputes, and other events in which is pro-Communism. He was also ordered to smuggle tungsten from China by the CIA, in which he earned a good chunk of money even though the shipments never arrived. Kodama died of stroke on January 17, 1984.

 

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Shoko Asahara

Shoko Asahara was born on March 2, 1955. His birth name is Chizuo Matsumoto, and was born in Yatsushiro, Kumamoto. He was part of a family of tatami mat makers, and was generally in poverty through out his childhood. He suffered from infantile glaucoma, he is blinded in his left eye and can only barely see with his right eye. As a result, Asahara was enrolled in a school for the blind. After graduating in 1977, Asahara pursued his studies of acupuncture and Chinese medicine, which is a typical profession for blind people in Japan. He was caught selling unregulated drugs and practicing pharmacy without a license in 1981, which resulted in him being fined with 200000 yen. During this time, Asahara sparked an interest in religions, as he studied various Chinese religions and astrology. He then went on to be more interested in Christianity.

Shoko Asahara

 

Asahara then officially changed his name from Chizuo Matsumoto to his current and more recognizable name Shoko Asahara in 1987, and along with that, applied to the government for the registration of his new group named Aum Shinrikyo. It was not legally recognized until 1989 however, as officials were reluctant to acknowledge Aum Shinrikyo as a legal religious organization. Aum Shinrikyo’s teachings were based on the Bible, Asahara declared himself as the “Christ”, and saw himself as the savior from the sins of the people. His famous crime happened on March 20, 1995, when members of the Aum Shinrikyo went to the Tokyo Subway and attacked civilians with sarin, which is a nerve gas. 13 people were killed, and other thousands were severely ill. Asahara, along with the 12 disciples who conducted and performed the attack were convicted and arrested. Asahara was found guilty in 13 out of 17 charges filed against him, and was sentenced to death in 2004. It was further delayed however, and in June 2012, it was postponed as other Aum Shinrikyo members were arrested.

 

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Koji Seto

Born on May 18, 1988, Koji Seto is a well known actor and singer in Japan. He was born in Kama, Fukoka, and was the eldest child with 2 younger siblings. Seto dreamed of being a veterinarian, but his plans changed when he was able to watch the TV series Orange Days while he was still in Junior High School. He then planned to become an actor, being inspired by the performance of Satoshi Tsumabuki in the series. He then enrolled in an acting school, with his parents providing full support to their son. In 2005, Seto got a role as Makoto Kanno in the comedy TV series Rocket Boys.

Koji Seto

 

After finishing his filming for the series (which took 6 months to air), he was surprised by his parents with a letter stating that Seto made it to the final round of the D-Boys audition by Watanabe Entertainment. Koji Seto then won the Grand Prix 2nd Winner award for his performance of “Himawari”, which was originally sung by Fukuyama Masaharu. in 2006, Seto starred along with his fellow D-Boys members in their own show, titled “D-Boys”. He also got the part for Eiji Kikumaru in Tenimyu, who is an energetic and highly acrobatic tennis player. He then popularized his nickname “Setomaru”, which was a combination of his last name, Seto, and the last name of Kikumaru. It became a household name in Japan with Seto’s 151 performances under the nickname. In 2007, Seto, along with stage partner Yukihiro Takiguchi, were given the Best Actors Album, and were given praise and acclaim by the creator. In 2009, Seto was casted for the latest sequel to the Ju-On movie which was entitled “Ju-On – Black Girl”. Seto then played again his role as Wataru Kurenai for the Kamen Rider Decade’s first and last episode. He also starred later that year for the TV series Atashinchi no Danshi as Satoru Okura, who is described as ill-tempered, but genius and witty.

 

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Mizuki Fukumura

Mizuki Fukumura was born in Tokyo, Japan on October 30, 1996. She is a ninth-generation member and known pop singer in Japan. She is also the leader of well known pop group Morning Musume. She was also a former member of Shugo Chara Egg!. In her early years, Fukumura, at a young age of 10, entered a contest conducted by the Kirarin Revolution animated series known as the Kirarin Girl Contest 2006. Fukumura ended up getting a 2nd place finish. She was highly encourage by her mother to audition for Hello! Pro Egg, as she was a fanatic in her early years. She was able to pass and became a member of the Hello! Pro Egg, along with other enthusiasts Akari Takeuchi and Rie Kaneko on June 22, 2008.

Mizuki Fukumura

 

Mizuki Fukumura made her singing and live performance debut at the 2008 Hello! Project Shinjin Kouen 9gatsu “Shibakouen Step!” concert held on September 23 of the same year. Fukura then made her television debut on August 2009 as Amulet Heart in the television show Shugo Chara! Party!. She was added as a second generation member. Fukura then auditioned in 2011 for a spot in Morning Musume, where in she sang “Maji Bomber” as her audition piece. She did not pass the auditions however, as she only made it through the third round. To her complete surprise however, that when the announcements were made by the producer, she was included to be a part of the Morning Musume. She made her Morning Musume debut at the Hello! Project 2011 Winter “Kangei Shinsen Matsuri” concert, where the announcements were also made. “Maji Desu ka Ska!” was the first single released to ever feature Fukumura as a member of Morning Musume. At Tanaka Reina’s concert in 2013, Fukumura was declared as a sub-leader along with Iikubo Haruna of Morning Musume. On March 30, she made an appearance in the opening of the new Hello! Project shop in Akihabara.

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Makiko Esumi

Makiko Esumi was born on December 18, 1966 in Izumo Shimane Prefecture, Japan. She is a well known model and actress in Japan, and is also known to be a lyricist and writer. Esumi is known to play the role of Chinatsu Tsuboi in the Japanese television series Shomuni. When she was still a high school student, Makiko Esumi worked part time as a miko or a supplementary priestess, at Izumo-taisha. She then went on to join the Japan Tobacco Women’s Volleyball team as soon as she graduated high school, but was injured in 1989. She then pursued a career in show business after being inspired by Miki Imai while she was still recovering from her injury.

Makiko Esumi

 

Makiko Esumi made her acting debut in Maborosi as Yumiko in 1995. She received positive reviews for her role, and as stated by Edward Guthmann of the San Francisco Chronicle, Esumi played her role extraordinarily and acted with grace and delicacy. With this performance, she earned the Rookie of the Year award at 19th Annual Japan Academy Prize and also at the 38th Blue Ribbon Awards. In 1996 however, she was involved in an ugly and scandalous divorce with her then husband Rowland Kirishima, where in Esumi was caught cheating on him while Kirishima was on his business trip. On April 26, 2000, Esumi penned and made her singing debut with her single titled One Way Drive. It was used as the ending song for the second season of the Shomuni series, where in she also played a role. The music was played by Tomoyasu Hotei. In 2002, she was nominated for Best Actress for her role in Inochi. Esumi married Shin Hirano who was a Fuji TV director in 2003. Esumi has two daughters, with the first one being born in February 2005 and the second one in December 2009. She was also involved in a small scandal where Esumi appeared in government advertisements encouraging the mass to make their pension payments, and was later revealed that Esumi was not making contributions herself.

 

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Japanese Architect Kisho Kurokawa

Kisho Kurokawa was born on April 8, 1934 in Kanie, Achi. He is a well known architect in Japan, and is also noted to be one of the leading founders of the Metabolist Movement. Kisho Kurokawa attended Kyoto University where in he graduated with a degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture. After he graduated in 1957, he then chose to study again in the University of Tokyo for his Masters degree, and was guided by Kenzo Tange through out his stay. He was able to obtain his Master’s degree in 1959. Kisho Kurokawa planned to pursue a doctorate in philosophy, but he eventually dropped out of it in 1964. In 1960, Kurokawa, along with his peers and colleagues, formed the avant-garde movement famously known as the Metabolist Movement. It is a movement revolving around the idea of using the environment and biological growth as inspiration for architectural designs, which also had some Marxist theory influences. The movement became successful, and reached its peak in 1970 at the Osaka World Expo 1970. The movement also dissolved the same year.

Kisho Kurokawa

 

Kurokawa founded his own architectural firm on April 8, 1962 which was named as Kisho Kurokawa Architect and Associates, where in he also acted as the president. The main office is located in Tokyo, with branches found in Osaka, Los Angeles, Nagoya, Beijing, Kuala Lumpur, and Astana. It is registered as a “First Class Architects Office” in the Japanese government. Some of the notable projects that Kurokawa has been involved in are the Takara Beautilion, Nakagin Capsule Tower, Nation Museum of Ethnology and Headquarters of the Japanese Red Cross society in the 70s, National Bunraku Theater, Saitama Prefectural Museum of Modern Art, and Japanese-German center of Berlin in the 80s, Chinese-Japanese Youth Center, Okinawa Prefectural Government Headquarters and the Lane Crawford Place in the 90s. In his latter days, Kurokawa became more concerned in the protection of the environment and even ran for governor of Tokyo in 2007, in which he lost. Kurokawa died of heart failure on October 12, 2007.

 

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Dragon Ball Z’s Trunks

Trunks is the first son of Dragon ball explorer Bulma and Prince of Saiyans Vegeta. Trunks is well known for his distinct blue hair, which is similar to his mom and is also very unusual for a Saiyan, as most Saiyans have black hair when they are not in Super Saiyan mode. He first appeared as a time traveler from the future, where in his timeline was destroyed by Android 17 and 18. Trunks explains that in his timeline or universe, Son Goku suffered from a virus and died of heart attack. Because of this event, the Z forces that were left could not stop the Androids from killing almost everyone on Earth and causing mass destruction through out.

Future Trunks

 

His mission is to go back to the past and bring Son Goku the antidote for the virus so that the present timeline will not suffer the same fate as Future Trunks’ timeline. He also sought to train in this timeline so that he can get strong enough in order to defeat the androids in his own timeline. It is also notable that Vegeta was first indifferent with Trunks, and did not believe that he was his son from the future. This all changed when Cell killed Trunks, where in an angry Vegeta attacked ferociously at Cell. He was then revived by the use of the Dragon balls when Cell was defeated. After the Cell saga, he then went back to his own timeline, stronger and better. He then killed Android 17 and 18 with ease, and lived peacefully and remained the only living Saiyan of his timeline. When Trunks first arrived, he sported a blue jacket, a black tank top, and also yielded a sword which he used to kill Frieza. In the present timeline, Trunks was best friends with Goten, in which both of them use the Fusion technique in order to form Gotenks, a much stronger and much more sillier form of them.

 

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